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Tadeusz Sendzimir: Inventor Extraordinaire

Tadeusz Sendzimir was born in Lwow (then) Poland in 1894, the eldest of four children and the son of a civil servant. World War I put an end to his formal education, and he fled to China, where he married Barbara Alferieff, of Russian nobility. His first son, Michael, was born; and his first industrial venture, a nail factory, was established there. In the 1930s, Dr. Sendzimir immigrated to the United States, where he resided until his death in 1989 at the age of 95.

Bio of Michael G. Sendzimir

Michael G. Sendzimir was born in Shanghai, China, in 1924. He received his early schooling in Poland and continued his education at La Chataigneraie in Switzerland. He graduated in 1943 from the Manlius School, near Syracuse, New York, after which he served three years in the Army of the United States, rising to the rank of Second Lieutenant. In 1951, he graduated from Columbia School of Engineering in New York with a BS degree in Industrial Engineering. In 1986, he received his Honorary PhD in Science, and in 1993 in Law.

Locations of Sendzimir Mills

Sendzimir Mills are located all around the world. The countries with Sendzimir Mills include…..

Avesta Nyby Bruk Process-Line Z-High® Mill

The concept of using a live reduction mill in a stainless annealing and pickling line was developed in the early 1980s. The objective was to take a live pass on annealed and pickled material to develop the surface in order to see if such a coil of strip could be directly cold rolled instead of having to be processed through a surface grinding line. Also to be investigated were the extent to which gauge could be corrected and reduction achieved. 4-High mills and Sendzimir ZS-type mills averaged reductions of 7-8%. However, they had difficulty with shape control, and the material underwent work hardening.

The Continuous Processing of Stainless Steel at Ugine

A new continuous annealing, pickling, and rolling line just 380 m long that reduces production time from 3 weeks to 20 minutes has been commissioned at Isbergues. The LC2i (Ligne Continue Intégrée Inox) continuous pickling and rolling line for stainless steel was commissioned at Usinor’s Ugine Isbergues works in the north of France in October 1998.

Control of Quarter Buckle on Sendzimir 20-High Mills

THE problem of control of strip flatness in cold rolling has challenged the industry for a long time. The problem can be separated into two parts: measurement of flatness; and adjustment of roll gap profile to correct any deviation from the target detected by the measuring device. The flatness measurement problem has largely been solved, and several flatness measuring devices (shapemeters) are now available. These devices all have their limitations, eg, high cost, some are suitable for low tensions only, and frequent discrepancies may be found between their indicated flatness values and actual flatness (as measured subsequently on the strip). However, in general, for a given application, it is possible to obtain a shapemeter that will perform satisfactorily

Control of Quarter Buckle on Sendzimir 20-h Mills - Article

By John W. Turley

Copper Producer Likes Advantages of Z-Mill Split Housing Design

Mitsubishi Shindoh, a Japanese copper sheet and strip producer, has been operating since 2000 a 26 in (660 mm). wide Sendzimir Z-mill with a pre-stressed split housing supplied by Sendzimir Japan, Ltd. The mill includes Sendzimir’s patented Flexible Shaft Backing Assemblies for improved control of strip shape and is rolling copper and copper alloys.

Development of the Z-High® Design

The first cluster mills with small-diameter work rolls came on the market in the early 1930s. They were initially used to roll low-carbon steel and very special materials in narrow widths. It was only in 1950 that the industry fully recognized the suitability of the Sendzimir cluster mill for rolling stainless steel.

The First Sendzimir Tandem Mill

Nisshin Steel Co. placed the world’s first Sendzimir tandem mill into operation at its Shunan works in 1969. Located in Nanyo, Japan, the plant occupies a site of approximately one-third square mile. Occupying about 18% of the 315-ft (96 meters) total installation length are four Sendzimir stands: one ZR 22N-50 and three ZR 21B-50. Once up and running, the mill’s maximum finished monthly production capacity totaled 18,300 net tons — 35% 400 series; and 65% 300 series stainless steel.

World's First Sendzimir Tandem Mill

by Tsuyoshi Ohama

Introduction to Sendzimir Rolling Mills

ZR & ZS Mills

Regrinding Sendzimir Mill Work Rolls

1957 publication by the Norton Company

Another Aspect Of Polish Contribution to Japan

This speech is about the author's experience working with a distinguished metallurgist named Tadeusz Sendzimir and the invention of the continuous hot dip galvanizing process.

Sendzimir Controlled Collapse Winder

by John W. Turley

Lubrication: A Technical Publication Devoted to the Selection and Use of Lubricants

Published by the Texas Company, Texaco Petroleum Products

Michael Sendzimir Bio

All about former President and son of founder Tadeusz, Michael G. Sendzimir

Lubrication of Sendzimir Mills

From the third annual meeting of the Lubrication and Wear Group, October 1964

Hot Strip Mills for Thin Slab Continuous Casting Systems

by Michael G. Sendzimir

Planetary Rolling

by Atlas Steels Limited

MK Metallfolien GmbH to Produce Next-Generation Catalytic Converter Materials

In 1995–98, Krupp VDM, Emitec GmbH—the world’s largest manufacturer of metal catalytic converters—the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Materials Research, and Wuppertal University discovered a new material – Aluchrom YHf – whose cousin, Aluchrom 7Al YHf, promises to meet the stringent new air pollution standards that will soon be imposed on automobiles in the United States and Europe. Patented by Krupp VDM, the alloy contains chromium, iron, and rare earth elements with as much as 7 percent aluminum by weight. The composition can heat up faster than any other material used in catalytic converters because of its relatively high thermal resistivity and its ability to be rolled to as thin as 0.001 inch (0.025 mm) without jeopardizing the material’s operating life. Moreover, the extreme thinness maximizes surface area, and thus catalytic efficiency, without increasing the weight or volume of the unit or its resistance to air flow. Variations on this alloy are being produced by others, but Aluchrom apparently has the greatest life.

New Sendzimir Technology Assures Optimum Strip Quality at Armco

Armco Inc.’s Coshocton Operations as once again invested in Sendzimir equipment. The company has just modernized its first Z-High®, installed in 1981, to meet the design specifications of its second Z-High®, installed in 1997. “The new design incorporates computerized pass-line and side-support beam adjustment,” says Kerry Fender, General Supervisor, Cold Rolling, Armco Coshocton Operations. “This enables operations to make accurate adjustments assuring optimum strip quality for our customers.”…

Process-Line Z-High® Mill for Strip-Cast Steel

T. Sendzimir Inc.—originator of the cluster mill design—is modifying its existing Z-High® Mill to make it compatible with operating conditions within the continuous casting environment. Company officials believe the potential for this new design is “exciting.”

Quality Development in the Production of Strip Products

Middletown, Ohio, USA, had been asked to find a way to roll 3.5% silicon grain-oriented steel down to 0.05 mm for the production of small transformers that would make airborne radar possible. ARMCO’s engineers tried a number of different approaches, all to no avail. Even the use of a narrow four-high mill with very small diameter sapphire rolls failed because the high lateral force caused the rolls to snap in the middle.

Shape Control in Cluster Mills

Cluster mills first came into existence in the 1930s. They are characterized by small-diameter work rolls that are supported by a cluster of rolls as shown in Figure 1 (which shows the location of eight backing assembly shafts: “A” through “H” containing eccentric saddles and bearings). More than 600 cluster mills are now operating around the world. Of these, approximately 400 are of the Sendzimir type, in which, with few exceptions, the housing is monoblock with very short columns and rigid construction, resulting in a high mill modulus (stiffness).

Tension Leveling and Skin Passing in a Galvanizing Line

Demand for galvanized sheet has grown strongly in accordance with increasingly severe requirements of ultimate users for particular characteristics and quality. This demand, coming at a time when the majority of the steel industry’s products are finding fewer outlets, has been able to develop due to the introduction of higher-quality galvanized sheet, with varied coatings, providing precise mechanical characteristics and surface conditions. These products have outlets in the building, domestic appliances, metallic furniture, and automobile industries…

What Role for the Z-High® in Aluminum Mills?

In 2001, Jupiter Aluminum placed a contract with Sendzimir for a Z-High® mill. More commonly associated with steels, what is the Z-High® and what can it do for aluminum rollers? In 1943, the United States was fully engaged in World War II. Armament production was essential, and the steel company Armco, in Middletown, Ohio, had been asked to find a way to roll 3.5% oriented-grain silicon steel down to 0.002 inch for the production of small transformers that would make airborne radar possible. Armco’s engineers tried a number of different approaches, but nothing worked. Even the narrow 4-high mill with very small diameter sapphire rolls failed because the high lateral force caused the rolls to snap in the middle.

Z-High® Mill for Aluminum

Sendzimir mills have traditionally been associated with the superior cold rolling of hard-to-roll materials such as stainless steel. What is not so readily apparent is that this concept is being profitably applied to hard aluminum alloys, such as those containing 3-5% magnesium. Moreover, a version of the Sendzimir Z-high mill has recently been optimized for aluminum rolling by incorporating slightly larger work rolls in order to allow for greater draft reductions inherent in the breaking down of aluminum.

Positional Sprayboards

Being able to change work rolls quickly and without damaging the strip or the equipment is important. Sendzimir therefore developed a modification to the sprayboards that uses hydraulic cylinders to raise or lower individual sprays, thus pushing the strip out of the way of the work roll to be changed. This modification facilitates work roll change when the strip is in the mill by making the rolls more accessible.

20-High Mill Nomenclature

Sendzimir 20-high cluster mills commonly carry the prefix ZR, which stands for “Zimna,” the Polish word for “cold,” and “reversing.” This prefix was used the first time to describe Silesia’s first reduction mill. The numbers, and sometimes letters, following this prefix describe the mill’s geometry, the relative size of its work roll, and the widest strip that the mill can roll.

The number immediately following the “ZR” indicates the mill “section” size comprising a combination of the backing bearings, the work rolls, and so on. For example, a ZR 23 has backing bearings with a diameter of 8.858 inches (225 mm) and work rolls with a diameter of 1.578 inches (40 mm). A ZR 32, on the other hand, has backing bearings of 1.875 inches (48mm) in diameter and work rolls of 0.250 inches (6.5mm) in diameter. The significance of the difference is that a ZR 23 can roll ferrous and nonferrous materials down to a minimum gauge of 0.002 inches (50 microns), while a ZR 32 can roll ultrathin nonferrous foil down to 0.0001 inches (2.5 microns), which is 20 times thinner!

Advances in Cold Rolling Technology

At the beginning of 1985, the steel and non-ferrous industries found themselves in a bind — they were faced with low consumption, shrinking markets, higher costs, increased quality demands, and lower prices. This was not an enviable position, particularly as it followed three decades of relatively good prosperity.

The customer of the mid-1980s has had to accept smaller cars; higher interest rates, and greater costs for owning his home. He has experienced inflation a bigger food budget, higher taxes, and a spouse who has a second job and shares in decisions of how to make ends meet. What does that mean? It means that the customer is more choosy and more difficult to satisfy.

Behavior of Rolls in 6-h Mills

by John W. Turley

The Continuous Processing of Stainless Steel at Ugine

The LC2i line, launched in October 1998, stands out due to its unique two-stand tandem Z-high mill, which replaces traditional Sendzimir mills. This innovative line is capable of processing both ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, supporting wide strips and various steel grades for diverse applications, including construction and highly corrosive environments. The line focuses on optimizing production efficiency, reducing costs, and maintaining high-quality standards, all while minimizing manual handling and parts inventory through standardization and automation.

Development of the Z-High Design

Chronicles the evolution of the Z-High® mill, an innovation in the steel rolling industry that began to take shape in the early 1930s with the introduction of cluster mills. Initially, these mills were used for rolling low-carbon steel and specialized materials. The widespread adoption of Sendzimir cluster mills for stainless steel began around 1950.