The concept of using a live reduction mill in a stainless annealing and pickling line was developed in the early 1980s. The objective was to take a live pass on annealed and pickled material to develop the surface in order to see if such a coil of strip could be directly cold rolled instead of having to be processed through a surface grinding line. Also to be investigated were the extent to which gauge could be corrected and reduction achieved. 4-High mills and Sendzimir ZS-type mills averaged reductions of 7-8%. However, they had difficulty with shape control, and the material underwent work hardening.